Red Angus heifers predominate, followed by Black Angus and some Black Baldie. Purchased heifers are preconditioned (VAC 45) prior to shipment to Holt River Ranch. Heifers are calfhood vaccinated for brucellosis, vaccinated prebreeding with a modified-live IBR-BVD and leptospirosis (including hardjo-bovis) and campylobacter (vibrio). All heifers are BVD-PI negative. Strategic parasite control is used for both internal and external parasites. Prior to breeding, heifers are selected based on phenotype, disposition, reproductive tract score and pelvic area. Heifers are heat synchronized and bred artificially with proven calving ease sires. Clean-up bulls are used for 45-60 days and are selected with emphasis on calving ease and balanced EPD’s that fit the commercial cattlemen. Bulls are on an outstanding health program and are checked regularly for Trich. Heifers are placed on small grain pastures (when available) for late fall and winter grazing. Alternatively, heifers are developed on native range and supplemented according to nutrient requirements to meet breeding target weights. Prebreeding exams and reproductive health programs are administered in February-March for the spring session and in September-October for the fall session. Synchronized, fixed-time AI breeding occurs from mid-April to early to Mid May and Mid November in spring and fall. Heifers are early pregnancy tested with ultrasound or Biopryn blood test to differentiate AI versus pasture breeding. Pregnancies are re-confirmed prior to shipment. All heifers sell with a “pregnancy guarantee”. Any heifers pregnancy checked by a veterinarian within 30 days of purchase and found to be open will be replaced or the price adjusted to reflect the value of a bred versus open heifer. Heifers are handled utilizing low stress stockmanship techniques while at Holt River Ranch. Heifers are handled on horseback, with four-wheelers and on foot to assure quick adaptation to diverse handling styles after purchase.